are the mainstay of osteoarthritis therapy and include the following:
- Patient education and dietary changes
- Topical application of heat and cold
- Weight loss
- Physical therapy
- Occupational therapy
- Reducing stress in certain joints (eg, knee, hip)
Tai chi may be helpful for pain relief associated with osteoarthritis of the knee especially if performed 60 minutes twice weekly for 12 weeks. A study demonstrated a greater pain reduction than those who did not participate.
Hand therapy medications include topical capsaicin, topical NSAIDs, oral NSAIDs, and Tramadol. Knee treatment includes Acetaminophen, oral NSAIDs, topical NSAIDs, Tramadol, and injections of steroids into the joint. Hips can be treated with everything previously listed except for topical capsaicin and topical NSAIDs.
Stem Cell Regeneration is an experimental and developing treatment for Osteoarthritis. Targeted cell therapy can lead to repair and regeneration of the damaged joints, as well as inhibition of the inflammatory effect that causes ongoing OA.
In the peripheral joints, surgery for osteoarthritis usually includes minimally invasive surgeries keyhole surgeries, including the opening of the joint capsule, and repair of the damaged joint. In the spine, surgery can vary on a case-by-case basis according to the damage caused, symptoms, and patient quality of life.